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Chen C.Y., Liu, T.J.Y., Lee, I.T., Rothkaehl, H., Przepiórka, D., Chang, L.C., Matyjasiak, B., Ryu, K., Oyama, K.-I. (2018). The midlatitude trough and the plasmapause in the nighttime ionosphere simultaneously observed by DEMETER during 2006–2009, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 123, 5917-5932, doi: 10.1029/2017JA024840.

Abstrakt: This paper concurrently investigates the midlatitude trough and the plasmapause positions in the ionosphere by colocated measurements of the electron density, electron temperature, and whistler count probed by DEMETER (Detection of Electro‐Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite in the nighttime at 2230 LT (local time; 1900–0100 MLT, magnetic local time, mainly in the premidnight period) during the 4‐year period of 2006–2009. More than 13,000 Detection of Electro‐Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions orbits of the electron density and the electron temperature are used to search the trough position, while the same amount of the whistler count is employed to determine the plasmapause position at the satellite altitude. The plasmapause is more sensitive to solar activity, which moves equatorward 1.0–1.2° form the low to high solar activity of the study period. On the other hand, the midlatitude trough is more sensitive to seasonal variation, which shifts poleward 1.7–2.5° from the winter to summer month in the study period. The midlatitude trough usually appears in the poleward side of the plasmapause during the study period. Both of the midlatitude trough and the plasmapause move equatorward during the magnetic disturbed condition. For the magnetic disturbed Kp ≥ 6−, the midlatitude trough can appear in the equatorward side of the plasmapause.

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